Blepharospasm Resource Guide
By the National Eye Institute
Eye Diseases and Disorders Series - LPR Staff Project - December 27, 2004
(This article is for information purposes only. Always consult your doctor for medical advice.)
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The following is an abridgement of an article that was provided courtesy of the National Eye Institute. A complete, printed copy of this article, as well as a other free publications offered by the NEI, can be ordered via their NEI Publications Catalog.
Blepharospasm Resource Guide
By the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
The information provided in this Resource Guide was developed by the National Eye Institute (NEI) to help patients and their families search for general information about blepharospasm. An eye care professional who has examined the patient's eyes and is familiar with his or her medical history is the best person to answer specific questions.
Benign essential blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm.
What is Blepharospasm?
Blepharospasm is an abnormal, involuntary blinking or spasm of the eyelids.
What causes Blepharospasm?
Blepharospasm is associated with an abnormal function of the basal ganglion from an unknown cause. The basal ganglion is the part of the brain responsible for controlling the muscles. In rare cases, heredity may play a role in the development of blepharospasm.
What are the symptoms of Blepharospasm?
Most people develop blepharospasm without any warning symptoms. It may begin with a gradual increase in blinking or eye irritation. Some people may also experience fatigue, emotional tension, or sensitivity to bright light. As the condition progresses, the symptoms become more frequent, and facial spasms may develop. Blepharospasm may decrease or cease while a person is sleeping or concentrating on a specific task.
How is Blepharospasm treated?
To date, there is no successful cure for blepharospasm, although several treatment options can reduce its severity.
In the United States and Canada, the injection of Oculinum (botulinum toxin, or Botox¨) into the muscles of the eyelids is an approved treatment for blepharospasm. Botulinum toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, paralyzes the muscles of the eyelids.
Medications taken by mouth for blepharospasm are available but usually produce unpredictable results. Any symptom relief is usually short term and tends to be helpful in only 15 percent of the cases.
Myectomy, a surgical procedure to remove some of the muscles and nerves of the eyelids, is also a possible treatment option. This surgery has improved symptoms in 75 to 85 percent of people with blepharospasm.
Alternative treatments may include biofeedback, acupuncture, hypnosis, chiropractic, and nutritional therapy. The benefits of these alternative therapies have not been proven.